Royal Icing with Consistency Adjustments
Royal Icing is hands-down my favorite icing for cookie decorating. The egg whites in Royal Icing make it faster drying than confectioner’s icing, where the liquid content is usually milk or cream, and better for fine detail work, as it’s less prone to spreading. Use this thick formulation as edible glue for adhering sugar dragées and fondant appliqué to cookie tops, or for piecing together large gingerbread structures. For outlining, topcoating, marbling, and other cookie decorating techniques, just thin with water until the desired consistency is reached. See Consistency Adjustments, right.
Yield: About 4 1/2 cups, enough to topcoat 4 to 5 dozen (3-inch) cookies
Prep Talk: Tinted icing is best used the day it’s mixed. (The color will dry more uniformly, without bleeding or blotching, this way.) Otherwise, the icing can be made 1 to 2 days ahead and stored in the fridge. Bring the icing to room temperature when ready to use and stir well to restore its original consistency. Once applied to cookies, the icing should remain at room temperature so it sets into a crunchy candy-like coating. Important: Unless you’re using the icing, always cover the surface flush with plastic wrap to prevent a crust from forming.
- 2 pounds powdered sugar
- 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
- 5 large egg whites (or about 11 tablespoons or 5 1/2 ounces pasteurized whites*)
- Flavoring, to taste
- Liqua-gel food coloring of your choice, to desired shade
* To guard against salmonella poisoning associated with raw eggs, it’s best to use pasteurized whites (or hydrated meringue or albumen powder) especially when serving the very young or old, or those with compromised immune systems. Pasteurized whites are found in cartons, or pasteurized in the shell, in the refrigerated section of most grocery stores. If using pasteurized eggs in the shell, you may find the eggs harder to separate than normal, so you may need to use an additional egg white. If using meringue powder, use 2 teaspoons meringue powder hydrated in 2 tablespoons warm water for each large egg white called for in this recipe. Be sure to hydrate with warm water to completely dissolve the powder; otherwise, your icing may end up gritty.
1 | Mix the powdered sugar and cream of tartar together in the bowl of an electric mixer. Stir in the egg whites by hand to moisten the sugar. Fit the electric mixer with a whip attachment and beat the mixture on low speed to evenly distribute the egg whites. Turn the mixer to medium-high speed and continue to beat about 1 to 2 minutes, just until the icing is silky and very white. (The icing will lighten and thicken as you beat it.)
Take care not to beat the icing any longer than is needed to turn it crisp white, and to only beat it at high speed at this very thick consistency. Extended beating, especially of looser icing, can pump a lot of air into it, creating tiny (or not so tiny) bubbles that can be a pain to eradicate once incorporated.
2 | Beat in flavoring and/or coloring, as desired. Again, take care not to overbeat for the reasons noted in Step 1.
Outlining and Topcoating with Royal Icing
Photo by Steve Adams
Consistency Adjustments: The following consistency adjustments are approximate guidelines for 1 cup of thick, un-tinted Royal Icing. The addition of food coloring or flavoring, beating time, and normal variations in egg size can all affect the end-consistency of your icing.
If after making these adjustments, you think your icing is too thin or too thick for your application, don’t worry. The icing consistency can be adjusted at any stage of the decorating process simply by stirring in sifted powdered sugar to thicken, or water to thin. Remember, at this stage, it is important to gently stir in (not whip on the mixer) any additional water. As the icing loosens, you’re much more likely to kick air bubbles into it even with aggressive stirring.
For outlining: Add 1/2 to 3/4 teaspoon water. For crisp, well-defined outlines, start with 1/2 teaspoon water. If the icing is too thick to easily pipe through a small (1/8-inch) hole in a parchment pastry cone, gradually add more water. When piped, the icing should hold a thin line with no - or minimal – spreading.
For topcoating: To avoid icing run-off on cookies under 2 inches, start by adding 1 1/2 teaspoons water. Gradually increase to 2 to 2 1/2 teaspoons, as needed, to improve spread-ability on larger cookies.
For marbling: A consistency thicker than topcoating consistency (i.e., about 3/4 to 1 1/3 teaspoons water per cup of thick icing) usually works best, as long as all of the icings you’re using still marble fluidly without the appearance of “tracks.” The smoothest, sharpest marbling effect is also achieved when all icings are as close to the same consistency as possible. (Note: The prettiest marbling patterns, in my humble opinion, require 3 or more icing colors. For Marbling Technique Tips, see the link below.)
For stenciling: Generally, 1/2 to 1 1/2 teaspoons water works best, though the exact quantity will vary with egg size and the other factors noted above. The icing must be thin enough to easily spread into the stencil openings without leaving peaks or tracks when the spatula is lifted. At the same time, it must be sufficiently thick to keep from creeping under the stencil into areas where it is not wanted. It is better to err on the thicker side, especially with very fine and closely spaced stencil openings. For Stenciling Technique Tips, see the link below.
For beadwork: About 2 to 3 teaspoons water works best, though, again, exact quantities will vary. At the proper consistency, a smooth, well-rounded dot should form when the icing is piped through a small (1/8-inch or less) opening in a parchment pastry cone. If the icing forms a peak, it is too thick. Conversely, if it spreads a great deal, it is too loose.
How would you adjust this recipe for meringue powder?
By Kathy on May 17, 2012
Good question, Kathy. Most meringue powder packages include equivalencies that indicate how much meringue powder/water make up one large egg white. But to make the above recipe to roughly the same thickness, I hydrate two teaspoons of meringue powder in 2 tablespoons of (lukewarm) water for each large egg white in the recipe; so 5 large egg whites would be replaced with 10 teaspoons of meringue powder mixed with 10 tablespoons of water. I like to use lukewarm water to ensure that the meringue powder fully dissolves, as otherwise it can leave a gritty residue. Also, most meringue powder contains additional sugar, vegetable gum, and other preservatives. So while icing made with meringue powder behaves pretty much identically to one made with raw or pasteurized whites, it will be a touch sweeter and somewhat stiffer/spongier due to the additives. Hope this helps!
By Julia M Usher on May 17, 2012
sei bravissima…una fonte di ispirazione…fai delle cose che sembrano impossibile..!!
By Patrizia Gasparetti on July 29, 2012
Thanks so much, Patrizia. Glad you found my site/blog!
By Julia M Usher on July 29, 2012
Being made with egg whites or pasteurized whites (instead of meringue powder) will it affect the longevity of the cookie?
By ASLIN HERNANDEZ on October 23, 2012
Hi, Aslin, Another good question! No, the use of egg whites (pasteurized or other) vs. meringue powder does not affect the longevity (I assume you mean “freshness”) of the cookie itself. All formulations of the icing dry to a hard candy-like coating within about the same period of time. (Meringue powder is essentially dehydrated egg whites with additional sugar and some other de-clumping agents.) Of course, to guard against salmonella (which is carried within the egg itself), you should use pasteurized whites or meringue powder (2 tsp. meringue powder dissolved in 2 Tbsp. warm water is roughly the equivalent of one large egg white). You can make this substitution directly in the recipe above. Hope this answers your question!
By Julia M Usher on October 23, 2012
Yes it does! Thank you for the quick response. I’ve wanted to try a recipe with egg whites instead of meringue powder as I usually do, but I thought the cookies were not gonna be fresh for long. Will try this week. THANKS!!
By ASLIN HERNANDEZ on October 23, 2012
So how long would you keep cookies with this icing? Do they need to be refrigerated?
By Marta on October 02, 2013
Hi, Marta, Most of my cookies have a shelf life of 1 to 2 or more weeks once baked and iced, if stored in airtight containers at room temp after the icing has completely dried. After this time, I begin to notice some drying and staling of the cookies, or that they sometimes pick up off-flavors from their storage containers/environment.
You do not want to refrigerate cookies that have been iced with royal OR confectioners’ icing, as sugar is hygroscopic (attracts moisture from the environment) and you run the risk of icing colors bleeding or mottling. Cookies can also soften, and I prefer a somewhat crunchy cookie.
Thanks for asking!
By Julia M Usher on October 03, 2013
I’ve just discover your website and I fell in love with it. I’m looking at your videos on your youtube channel and your works are amazing. Your creations are really beautiful.
I could not resist and I also bought your book on amazon :).
I love decorating cookies but I usually use pasteurised dried egg white powder. I did a course in London a couple of years ago and they teached me to use it. In Italy people usually use fresh egg white but I think it’s safer to use egg white powder. I’d like to try your recipe as I’ve never added cream of tartar and I’d like to try. Could you pls tell me how would you adjust this recipe for egg white powder? Do you think it is the same as meringue powder? (I usually dissolve 15g of Albumen in 75ml of water and than I add 500g of icing sugar) . Thanks a lot, all the best Maryon
By marion on September 26, 2014
Thanks for the very kind words. I’m thrilled to hear you’re enjoying my site and videos.
I’m not sure if you saw, but I have both meringue powder and pasteurized egg white substitutions spelled out directly underneath the list of ingredients. Powdered egg whites are different than meringue powder - the latter has sugar, powdered whites, and other stuff in it, so you’d need more meringue powder to pure powdered white to achieve the same piping/drying characteristics in any given recipe. Usually the package will say how much water to add to the powder to achieve the equivalent of one large egg white. I’d use the ratio your packaging says and then use the equivalent of 4 to 5 eggs whites with the 2 lb of powdered sugar that I call for above. But it sounds like your recipe is very similar to mine . . . Cream of tartar acts as an egg foam stabilizer (which isn’t so crucial for this recipe), but it also tends to keep the icing whiter longer. But, honestly, it’s not going to make a big difference if you omit it from my recipe.
By Julia M Usher on September 26, 2014
Hi! I just have to tell you how much I love your work and thank you so much for sharing with all of us! I really appreciate it and am learning so much. I wonder if you make haunted gingerbread mansions? I would love to learn how to do it with your 3D cookie methods. I think so many of them would make spectacular gingerbread houses for any occasion.
I especially wanted to thank you. I am disabled and a retired nurse unable to afford to go to pastry school or take any classes since I live in a tiny rural town. So your sharing really does help me fulfill dreams I’ve always had of making beautiful cookies for my family and friends.
I have always made candies, cookies and cakes at holiday time and taken them to places like our local hospital, nursing homes, police station, fire station, convenience stores….........any place where people have to work on the holidays. Just to say thank you for what you do and hopefully make their day a little better even though they have to work instead of being with their families for holidays. I worked as a charge nurse in a nursing home and many of my patients had no family or family that didn’t visit and I became their family and loved doing little things like this for them. It gives me a real charge to make them smile and know someone out there really does care. So thank you for helping me to do this even though I can’t afford to take the classes I need to learn….....and thank you for being a great teacher!!! I can’t wait to buy your books and am saving to do just that.
Have a wonderfully special and happy day.
By Christina Ellenburg on October 07, 2014
Thanks so much for the kind words and for your lovely story. I love that you make a point of brightening others’ lives with your sweets! :)
By Julia M Usher on October 07, 2014
What name of the chocolate do you use? And where can I get the clear paper you use to do your Stenciled cakes. I want to try and make cakes with decorations to sell because I have a student loan I need to pay off. Can you give me some ideas. I also want to know your royal icing and Italian icing recipes.
By michelle jennings on October 15, 2014
Hi, Michelle. If you look under the video descriptions for my videos (on YouTube), you’ll find extensive notes and links on the sources for those videos - that’s always the best place to go first. I use many brands of chocolate, but you want to use a real chocolate where the fat is 100 percent cocoa butter, with no palm oil substitutes; otherwise, the chocolate (“fake” chocolates) can set too fast. Brands like Callebaut, Ghirardelli, Guittard, and Valrhona work well. The acetate can be found online - just Google 3 mil acetate; the link is also in that video description. My royal icing recipe is directly above (you commented underneath it!) and my buttercream recipe is also on this blog. Just go to Blog -> Recipes -> Icings, and you will see it. Best of luck!
By Julia M Usher on October 15, 2014
Hi, do you know if it will work if I just buy meringues from the pastry shop and then process them?
By Rina on October 22, 2014
Hi, Rina, I doubt that would work, as meringues are completely baked, usually with a different type of sugar than what’s used in royal icing too. I’m not sure you could re-hydrate meringues to make a smooth icing (that would set) without ending up with a gritty mess. The above recipe is so easy too - I actually think you’d be making more work for yourself by trying to start by recreating it with meringues.
By Julia M Usher on October 22, 2014
Julia estoy maravillada con las cosas que usted hace y me gustaría preguntarle cual es el papel wafer y como puedo conseguirlo aca en ecuador
By Onela Aquin on November 24, 2014
Hi, Onela, I’m not sure if I understand your question, but wafer paper is an edible paper made of potato starch. It’s used to make flowers and other decorations on cookies and cakes. I’m not sure how you can get it in Ecuador, as I live in the US and have never needed to send any to Ecuador! But it’s widely available online; it’s even on Amazon. Perhaps one of those sources will ship internationally? Here’s one of the Amazon links: http://www.amazon.com/Bakery-Crafts-BC-WFS-0811-100/dp/B00024WNVI/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1416874584&sr=8-1&keywords=wafer+paper+edible&pebp=1416874589936
By Julia M Usher on November 24, 2014
Hello, how to recover a crisp royal icing? (because of overbeating)
By Olga on November 25, 2014
I have used this icing many times, and I am by no means a professional, it is easy to handle and the decorations come out beautifully !Instead of water
I used Wilton clear vanilla extract. I use this for all my decorating needs as well as for flooding its great!
By royal Icing on November 26, 2014
Olga - I have never heard of a “crisp” or crunchy icing coming from overmixing - usually this is a result of not covering the icing and so it develops a crust as it dries out. I’m not sure how to advise you, as I’ve never seen such a thing.
Thanks, Royal Icing, perhaps I misread your comment, but did you say you used extract instead of water in this recipe?! I could see this if you were only loosening the icing a very small amount, but to reach my flooding consistency, this could amount to quite a lot of extract, which can get costly . . . and depending on the extract, could result in an overwhelmingly strong flavor. But, as I said, maybe I misunderstood you.
By Julia M Usher on November 29, 2014
Hi Julie: I am interested in using the royal icing to decorate cookies, as you do so beautifully. So, my question is: is there another substitute way or receipe to create royal icing so it will not be so hard to eat?
I am afraid that people are not going to want to eat the cookies when they are rock hard. If they were for decorating purposes only, as for a Christmas tree, well that would be a different story. But I want to create cookies with beautiul designs on them AND have people want to eat them, hoping they dont break a tooth.
So, do you have any suggestions?
By Brian Jouris on November 29, 2014
Yes, a crust! It`s formed as soon as I finish mixing it (or immediately after, I mean, it begins to dry TOO fast)! How can I recover the royal icing (if you don’t know, maybe someone else)?
By Olga on November 29, 2014
Olga - Well, I doubt the crusting is from overmixing. Mixing incorporates air and thickens the icing a bit, but crusting is usually due to leaving the icing exposed to air too long. Try removing the crust, adding more water, and covering the icing immediately (flush with plastic wrap). If you feel it’s due to overmixing, then don’t mix it as much. I only ever beat my recipe 1 to 2 minutes as noted above.
By Julia M Usher on November 29, 2014
Brian - I assure you no one has ever broken a tooth on my royal icing! :) I apply it in a thin layer and it dries crunchy, but is completely palatable. However, if you want a softer icing, try adding a touch of corn syrup to it. But be warned, the icing will take longer to dry and you may have more trouble with colors bleeding as a result.
By Julia M Usher on November 29, 2014
Your talent exceeds anyone else on the internet. Some day I hope to achieve the aspect of quilting.
I’ve watched your video, made many notes, etc., but I am a bit OCD on measurements. . .if I weigh the egg whites, (as your video states, 5 to 6 ounces) for this recipe, does the quantity of pasteurized egg whites change the structure of your formula as shown on your video? Do I use 5 ounces or 5 1/2 ounces or 6 ounces?
Thank you so much.
By Barbara Wagner on December 11, 2014
Hi, Barbara! Thanks for such a wonderful compliment!
Regarding the royal icing: 5.5 ounces egg whites (fresh or pasteurized) should get you to my starting consistency, though you may want to start with a little less so you don’t overshoot. You can always add powdered sugar to thicken this icing if you overshoot, but it always seems to take much more than I would expect to restore consistency. That said, you’ll also want to add water gradually when loosening the icing for various tasks. Happy decorating!
By Julia M Usher on December 11, 2014
Hi Julia, I’m from Uruguay but I live in Buenos Aires, Argentina, I’m a baker since 2008. I found you videos on youtube and I just want to tell you that your work its amazing! you are great! you teach very well and its so much easy for me to learn with your videos. Sorry for my english, it’s no so good. I wish you the best and Thanks!
By Daniela on December 19, 2014
Thanks, Daniela! I really appreciate your kind words. (Your English is GREAT!)
By Julia M Usher on December 20, 2014
Hi Julia. I actually wanted to halve the recipe as I have a smaller amount of cookies. Any suggestions would be appreciated, but I need it real quick, infact I need it today within an hour!
By Aryana on February 14, 2015
Hi, Aryana, Sorry if I didn’t reply within the hour, but it is morning here and I just woke up! Most of the ingredients above are given in both volume and weight, so just take the weight measures and cut them in half, and proceed exactly as directed. It’s really that simple! Best of luck!
By Julia M Usher on February 14, 2015
I just love your site and videos. I have watched the royal icing videos a few times each, but I can’t seem to find the answer to one important question. If I were to make a cookie with two different colors (flood the cookie, then pipe a design on top), how long would the flooded or top-coated layer take to fully dry? Should the cookies be in an airtight container while the initial flooded/top-coated layer dries? Also, how long do the piped designs take to dry? I suppose I have to figure out how far in advance to begin making these cookies before gifting them (maybe individually wrapped in bags). Thanks!
By Therese on March 28, 2015
Hi, Therese! Thanks so much!
That sounds like three important questions! :)
Drying time, of either topcoat or details on top, depends greatly on several things - the thickness (consistency) of the icing to start, your ambient humidity, how thick (deep) the icing is laid, and how you dry the icing (air dry or with the assist of a dehydrator or some other drying device). Generally, I let my topcoats dry overnight (sometimes longer) IF I need them to dry all the way through before I take the next step. Sometimes I dry them less long, or not at all before applying the next layer, i.e., if I am doing a wet-on-wet technique. You should never contain the cookies to dry, or they won’t dry and colors can bleed. Dry them uncovered at room temperature. I hope I’ve answered your questions.